JP1000 Lecture 8


Temporal counters

1. Specific Time

       second:       -byoo
       minute:       -fun/-pun     ip-pun/san-pun/rop-pun/hap-pun/jup-pun
       hour  :       -ji           yo-ji/shichi-ji/ku-ji
       day   :       -ka/-nichi    tsuitachi/futsu-ka/mik-ka/yok-ka/itsu-ka/
                                   mui-ka/nano-ka/yoo-ka/kokono-ka/too-ka.../
                                   juu-yok-ka/hatsu-ka[20th]/ni-juu-yok-ka
       week  :       -shuu         (dai-)is-shuu/yon-shuu/ha-sshuu...(-me)
       month :       -gatsu        ichi-gatsu/ni-gatsu/san-gatsu/shi-gatsu/
                                   go-gatsu/roku-gatsu/shichi-gatsu/hachi-
                                   gatsu/ku-gatsu/juu-gatsu/juu-ichi-gatsu/
                                   juu-ni-gatsu
       year  :       -nen          yo-nen...(-me)

2. Period

       second:       -byoo(kan)
       minute:       -fun/-pun(kan)
       hour  :       -jikan        yo-jikan/ku-jikan
       day   :       -ka/-nichi(kan)[ichi-nichi:one day]
       week  :       -shuukan      is-shuukan/has-shuukan/jus-shuukan
       month :       -kagetsu(kan) ik-kagetsu/rok-kagetsu/hak-kagetsu/juk-
                                   kagetsu
       year  :       -nen(kan)

Time Reference

     _____ -nen_____ -gatsu_____ -nichi_____ -ji_____ -fun_____ -byoo

'half' :      -han          hachi-ji-han/yo-ji-han      
'past' :      -sugi         shichi-ji-juu-go-fun-sugi
'before/to':  -mae          ku-ji-go-fun-mae
'after':      -ato/-go      Ichi-jikan-ato/go ni mata kite kudasai.

Days of the week: -yoobi

Monday        :      getsu-yoobi   月曜日       [getsu 月 : moon]
Tuesday       :      ka-yoobi      火曜日       [ka    火 : fire]
Wednesday     :      sui-yoobi     水曜日       [sui   水 : water]
Thursday      :      moku-yoobi    木曜日       [moku  木 : wood/tree]
Friday        :      kin-yoobi     金曜日       [kin   金 : metal/gold]
Saturday      :      do-yoobi      土曜日       [do    土 : soil/earth]
Sunday        :      nichi-yoobi   日曜日       [nichi 日 : sun]

[N.B.] A week usually begins from Monday in Japanese.
       easy way of memorizing: gek-kaa-sui-moku-kin-doo-nichi

Months of the year: -gatsu

January       :      ichi-gatsu		一月
February      :      ni-gatsu      二月
March         :      san-gatsu       三月
April         :      shi-gatsu       四月     *yon-gatsu
May           :      go-gatsu        五月
June          :      roku-gatsu       六月
July          :      shichi-gatsu    七月     *nana-gatsu
August        :      hachi-gatsu      八月
September     :      ku-gatsu        九月     *kyuu-gatsu
October       :      juu-gatsu       十月
November      :      juu-ichi-gatsu   十一月
December      :      juu-ni-gatsu     十二月

Temporal particle NI

Use NI for specific temporal expressions containing numerals and days
of the week.

       san-gatsu ni/hachi-ji ni/1965 nen ni/suiyoobi ni/go-fun-mae ni

Approximate time, period, & quantity

[time]        -goro(ni)            roku-ji-goro/kayoobi-goro/ku-gatsu-goro
[period]      -gurai/-kurai        ni-jikan-gurai/yo-nen-gurai/san-pun-gurai
[quantity]    -gurai               jus-satsu-gurai/ni-hon-gurai

Particle KARA: 'from' [temporal & locative]

       Nihongo no kurasu wa ichi-ji kara hajimarimasu.
       Honkon kara gakusee ga oozee kimasu.

Particle MADE: 'until' & 'up to'

       Kinoo no ban juu-ni-ji made benkyoo-shimashita.
       Uchi kara daigaku made dono gurai kakarimasu ka?

Informal style

1. Verb/Adjective: use of dictionary form
              Boku iku yo.
              Kono eega omoshiroi ne.

2. Noun: by itself or adding the copulative DA (informal version of DESU)
              Koko ga Yooku daigaku.
              Ano hito wa Hasegawa-san da.

3. Question: rising intonation without KA
              Kaeru?/
              Muzukashii?/
              Kore anata no?/
4. Modality: use of sentence particles
              Kore oishii yo.
              Kore kariru (wa) yo.
              Wakaru ne.

Structure "How long does it take from A to B?"

   A  kara  B  made  dono-gurai  kakarimasu ka?

   Toronto kara Otawa made kuruma de dono-gurai kakarimasu ka?

Introduction to Japanese writing: KANJI

1.     History              
       Shang[Yin] Dynasty [16 BC ~ 1066 BC]    
     
     夏  殷(商)  秦  漢 三国(魏・呉・蜀) 隋  唐  宋  元  明  清

      
      Introduction of Chinese characters to Japan:  4 A.D.
       How Kanji evolved
       Existing Kanji: approx. 50,000

2.     Structure & Function

       Pictogram[-ph]    hieroglyphic 日 月 川 山
       Ideogram[-ph]     indexing 一 二 上 下 本
       Logogram[-ph]     meaning+meaning 信 明 林 森
       Phonologram[-ph]  meaning+pronunciation 検 剣 険 犠 議 儀

3.     Number & Classification
       How many characters in use:                 approx. 2500 ~ 4000
         Kyooiku Kanji [Education characters]:     881
         Jooyoo Kanji  [Characters for Daily Use]: 2136 [including Kyooiku Kanji and newly added 196 Kanji]

4.     Stroke order, Radicals & Meaning

       hen
       tsukuri
       kanmuri
       ashi
       kamae
       tare
       nyoo

5.     On & Kun readings

            ケン   見物              ブン    新聞               カイ    会話
見                聞                   会      
         
 み(る) 見ます             き(く)   聞きました           あ(う)   会いません

6. Go-on 呉音 6C~; Kan-on 漢音 7C~; Too-on 唐音(Soo-on 宋音)10C~

            ミョウ  燈 ギョウ   
    メイ   行    コウ    
            ミン   朝体              アン    

7.     Okurigana: declensional kana endings

      書く  話す  食べる  帰る  楽しい  難しい  静か(な)   

8.     Kokuji 国字 - Kanji made in Japan



Hints & Suggestions:
Links:
Kanji Alive (University of Chicago)

Jomon Culture(縄文文化)


Norio Ota 2016