JP1000 Introductory Lecture 05


PHONOLOGY: SUPRASEGMENTAL

ACCENTUATION:

       JAPANESE				ENGLISH

pitch (or plateau) accent stress (or peak) accent
pitch levels (low, high) stress (primary, secondary, tertiary)
syllable-timed vowel lengthening, ...
no extra-prominence given main stress given to one syllable
to any syllable

(e.g.) bnana banna
tmato tomto
karndaa clendar
piano pino

ACCENT TYPES: number of syllables {n} + 1

n = 1 x or O x
n = 2 O x or O x or O O x
n = 3 O O x or O O x or O O x or O O O x
.
.
. (x = particle, ...)

The accent mark [ ` ] is placed on the last high syllable which is followed by low
ones.

(e.g.) o soroshi i = osoroshi ha jimema shite = hajimemshite
L H H H L L H H H L L
(exercise)

ka ga mi ga kon ga hoshi ga

sra ga ts(u)ch ga kodomo ga hnabi ga

kudmono ga gakkoo ga bnshoo ga koojo ga

omoi kowi kawai arku

tomaru keru ts(u)karru shirabru

kredo shibraku konogoro taitee

hakkri massgu sappri don'yri

yooyaku nakanaka omoshiri Kyoto

ni wa hn o yonde-imas(u). In to nko ga snbiki imas(u).


FUNCTIONS OF ACCENT:

a) differentiate homonyms:  	kku 'write'  / kaku 'lack'

kta 'shoulder'/ kat 'pattern'

b) indicate word/phrase boundary:

shkai + mondai ----> shakaimndai
society' 'problem' 'social problem'


INTONATION: to be expanded later

So des(u) ka./ So des(u) ka.\/ So des(u) ka.\
'Is that so?' 'Are you sure?' 'Oh, I see.'

Ohayoo gozaimaas(u).~ Konnichi waa.~ Kanpaai.~


Hints & Suggestions

Accentuation and intonation are very important vehicles to convey speakers' feelings and emotions.
When you state, repeat, and read something, try pouring your feelings into the expression (empathizing).

Introduction to Japanese writing: HIRAGANA

identify each hiragana
irregular uses: particles wa は, e へ, (w)o を   あのひとなにかいましたか。せんしゅうどこいきましたか。  
long vowels:        x-ee -い, x-oo -う       せんせい、えいが、きょうと、どうりょう
geminates:     small tsu っ  はっぴょう、しっぱい、かっぱつ
syllabic nasal:        ん  こんばん、はんのう、べんきょう
palatalized syllables: small ya ゃ, yu ゅ, yo ょ     きゃくしゃ、きゅうりょう、しゅみ
punctuation: ten 、 maru 。  こんげつは、かいしゃのしごとでパリにいきます。
quotation marks: 「いつきたの。」

Hints & Suggestions

Be aware of some discrepancies between actual pronunciation and Hiragana spelling. So do not write as you hear in dictation. Keep rules in mind and always think of the meaning of each sentence.

link: Hiragana Wiki


Norio Ota 2012